no ancient findings are faced within the historical city; ruins
found during the excavations performed in the Golden Horn region
of city and at Asian side are showing that first settlement in the
region is reaching till to third millennium B. C. Acropolis of the
city, mentioned as Byzantion was at the area where today's Topkapř
Palace is present. Golden Horn, has a port which is still used today.
A stronghold starting from here was surrounding the city and reach
to Marmara Sea. Byzantion, while continuing to its life as a port
and a trade city during Roman Empire period, it is conquered and
demolished by a Roman Emperor, Septimus Severius after a siege exceeding
two years which begin on 191 A. D. The city which is fully re -
constructed by same Emperor, is widened and re - equipped.
4th century A. D., Roman Empire had been expanded too much, and
Istanbul is selected as the new capital city instead of Roma by
Emperor Great Constantine due to its strategic position. City is
re - organized within a period of exceeding 6 years, its ramparts
are widened and lots of temples, official buildings, palaces, hamams
and hippodrome is constructed. With great ceremonies, performed
on 330, city's being the capital city of the Roman Empire is officially
announced. During the period when Near Age had begun, the city which
is also known as Second Rome and New Rome, is then named as "Byzantion"
and Constantinople in the late eras. Name of the city is mentioned
as "Polis" among the public in the course of time.
is seen that efforts of making city beautiful of the emperors after
Great Constantine is continuing. First churches within the city
are constructed after Constantine. Istanbul remain the capital city
of Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) for a long period due to the
fall down of West Roman Empire on 5th century. The city, which is
re - constructed during Byzantium period are re - widened with ramparts.
Today, 6492 m. long magnificent city ramparts are constructed by
Emperor II. Theodosius. In the city, whose population is exceeding
half million on 6th century, one more golden age is lived under
Emperor Justinyen reign. Famous Hagia Sophia, which remained till
today, is the piece of art of this Emperor. Byzantium Empire and
capital city Istanbul's latter history is full of palace and church
intrigues, Iran and Arab attacks and frequently changing emperor
families' bloody fights.
reign, which is a dark age between 726 - 842, had begun with the
conquer of city by Crusaders on 1204, 4th Crusade, and city is raided
for years till to the all churches and monasteries as well as monuments.
The city, whose reign is passed to Byzantium again on 1261, did
not gain its former richness again. City is conquered by Turks on
1453 after a 53 days siege.
canons, used for the first time in the war history by Fatih Sultan
Mehmet, are reasons of surpass of Istanbul ramparts. Capital city
of Ottoman Empire had moved to this place, population of the city
is increased with the immigrants, imported from various parts of
the country, and public improvement studies of the desert and demolished
city had been commenced. Religious freedom and social rights are
given to the former residents of the city, and let them to continue
their lives. Patriarchate, which is the head of Christian Orthodox
Church, remains till today due to the rights given by Fatih. Turkish
art stigmatized the city one century after conquer, and domes and
minarets have reigned the panorama of the city. Beginning from the
16th century, due to being Ottoman Rulers Caliph at the same time,
Istanbul also become the center of Islamic world.
is fully improved under the reigns of Sultans, and gain a miracle
atmosphere. There are frequent fires, which demolishes wide areas
within the colorful pages of Istanbul history in this period. Sultan
Palace, which is constructed in former acropolis, is reigning the
unique panorama of Bosporus and Golden Horn.
denser connections with Western world, beginning from 19th
century, mosques and palaces begun to be constructed to Bosporus
coasts with European architecture style. Lots of palaces,
constructed within a short period of time, are also the symbols
of the falling down period. Istanbul, was one of the witnesses
of another world empire, conclusion of the I. World War.
empire is divided, and internal and foreign enemies were fighting
for their shares, a noble commander of the Turkish army had
entered into a struggle for Turkish nation. This Mustafa Kemal
named national hero, after Independence War exceeding 4 years,
republic of Turkey is established on 1923 by him. Moving the
capital city to Ankara, did not change the importance of Istanbul.
This unique city is continuing to its life with its charming